Sleep Apnea Surgery
Snoring, excessive daytime somnolence, restless sleep, and apnea are manifestations of sleep-disordered breathing.
Understanding of the pathophysiology related to these problems has led to some successes in nonsurgical and surgical interventions.Numerous sleep disorders are organized in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders by the American Sleep Disorders Association. The primary disorders that may warrant surgical intervention include snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Apnea is obstructive only when polysomnography reveals a continued inspiratory effort, evidenced by abdominal and thoracic muscle contraction. In central apnea, absence of airflow accompanies a lack of inspiratory effort, and this condition is not amenable to surgical correction.At times, apnea may be mixed, occurring with obstructive and central apnea symptoms.Patients with this condition present a therapeutic challenge to the surgeon.
Associated morbidity : Snoring is an undesirable sound that originates from the soft tissues of the upper airway during sleep. It is usually a source of contention for patients and their bed or dwelling partners, and it may be a harbinger of something more serious, such as OSA.
OSA is a sleep disorder in which airflow is repeatedly reduced or ceased. The disorder may vary in severity and is often associated with other physiologic problems. These problems include, among others, the following:
- Altered mood and behavior ( depression, lethargy, cognitive and memory impairment)
- Morning headaches
- Decreased libido
- Systemic and pulmonary hypertension
- Congestive heart failure
- Sleep-related arrhythmias